Geography and Early History of Israel and Palestine The land variously called Israel and Palestine is a small, 10, square miles at present land at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. During its long history, its area, population and ownership varied greatly. The present state of Israel occupies all the land from the Jordan river to the Mediterranean ocean, bounded by Egypt in the south, Lebanon in the north, and Jordan in the East. The remainder is divided between land occupied by Israel since the 6-day war and the autonomous regions under the control of the Palestinian autonomy.
While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel", representing the first instance of the name Israel in the historical record. The Bible states that David founded a dynasty of kings and that his son Solomon built a Temple.
Both the biblical and Assyrian sources speak of a massive deportation of the people of Israel and their replacement with an equally large number of forced settlers from other parts of the empire — such population exchanges were an established part of Assyrian imperial policy, a means of breaking the old power structure - and the former Israel never again became an independent political entity.
The Samaritan people claim to be descended from survivors of the Assyrian conquest.
The recovered seal of the Ahazking of Judah, c. Assyrian records say he leveled 46 walled cities and besieged Jerusalem, leaving after receiving tribute.
However, in the last half of the 7th century Assyria suddenly collapsed, and the ensuing competition between the Egyptian and Neo-Babylonian empires for control of Palestine led to the destruction of Judah in a series of campaigns between and The defeat was also recorded by the Babylonians in the Babylonian Chronicles.
One of the 21 LMLK seals found near the ancient city of Lachishwhich has an inscription written in Paleo-Hebrew alphabet and is dated from the reign of Hezekiah Babylonian Judah suffered a steep decline in both economy and population  and lost the Negev, the Shephelah, and part of the Judean hill country, including Hebron, to encroachments from Edom and other neighbours.
Isaiah 40—55, Ezekielthe final version of Jeremiahthe work of the Priestly source in the Pentateuch, and the final form of the history of Israel from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings  Theologically, they were responsible for the doctrines of individual responsibility and universalism the concept that one god controls the entire worldand for the increased emphasis on purity and holiness.
Judah remained a province of the Persian empire until BCE. According to the biblical history, Cyrus issued a proclamation granting subjugated nations their freedom. Jewish exiles in Babylon, including 50, Judeans, led by Zerubabel returned to Judah to rebuild the templea task which they are said to have completed c.
Yet it was probably only in the middle of the next century, at the earliest, that Jerusalem again became the capital of Judah.
After his death in BCE, his generals divided the empire between them and Judea became the frontier between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egyptbut in Judea was incorporated into the Seleucid Kingdom.
At first, relations between the Seleucids and the Jews were cordial, but later on as the relations between the hellenized Jews and the religious Jews deteriorated, the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes — attempted to impose decrees banning certain Jewish religious rites and traditions.
A Jewish group called the Hasideans opposed both Seleucid Hellenism and the revolt, but eventually gave their support to the Maccabees. The Jews prevailed with the expulsion of the Syrians and the establishment of an independent Jewish kingdom under the Hasmonean dynasty. The Maccabean Revolt led to a twenty-five-year period of Jewish independence due to the steady collapse of the Seleucid Empire under attacks from the rising powers of the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire.
The Hasmonean dynasty of priest-kings ruled Judea with the PhariseesSaducees and Essenes as the principal social movements.
As part of their struggle against Hellenistic civilizationthe Pharisees established what may have been the world's first national male religious education and literacy program, based around synagogues.
The Nasi's religious authority gradually superseded that of the Temple's high priest under the Hasmoneans this was the king.Israel: A History (The Schusterman Series in Israel Studies) [Anita Shapira] on r-bridal.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award in History () Winner of the Azrieli Institute Award for Best Book in Israel Studies in English or French () Written by one of Israel’s most notable scholars.
Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River)..
The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes controversially with this small region, which some have asserted also includes Jordan.
This part of the r-bridal.com web site looks at the ensuing crisis between Palestine and Israel. ANCIENT NEAR EAST. Ancient Mesopotamia: Ancient Mesopotamia and the history of Palestine are entwined with each other even before the Bible.
Abraham migrated from ancient Mesopotamia. Ancient Egypt Geography: Ancient Egypt geography led Egypt to seek control of routes leading to the r-bridal.com, the country often came into conflict with Palestine and Israel.
History of Israel; Ancient Israel and Judah; Natufian culture; Prehistory; Canaan; Israelites; United monarchy; Northern Kingdom; Kingdom of Judah; Babylonian rule; Second Temple period ( BCE–70 CE); Persian rule.
Palestine: Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean, comprising parts of modern Israel along with the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.