An analysis of discrimination laws in the human genome project

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An analysis of discrimination laws in the human genome project

Although these terms are used interchangeably to describe this practice, each carries individual nuances. Predictive medicine describes the field of medicine that utilizes information, often obtained through personal genomics techniques, to both predict the possibility of disease, and institute preventative measures for a particular individual.

Stratified medicine is a version of personalized medicine which focuses on dividing patients into subgroups based on specific responses to treatment, and identifying effective treatments for the particular group.

Oncogenomics is a field of study focused on the characterization of cancer—related genes. With cancer, specific information about a tumor is used to help create a personalized diagnosis and treatment plan. These treatment plans will be able to prevent or at least minimize the adverse drug reactions which are a, "significant cause of hospitalizations and deaths in the United States.

These labels may describe genotype-specific dosing instructions and risk for adverse events amongst other information. Over of these diseases including a few more common ones have predictive genetics of sufficiently high clinical impact that they are recommended as medical genetic tests available for single genes and in whole genome sequencing and growing at about new genetic diseases per year.

Note the drastic trend faster than Moore's law beginning in January as post-Sanger sequencing came online at sequencing centers. The cost must also take into account personnel costs, data processing costs, legal, communications and other costs.

One way to assess this is via commercial offerings. The GINA legislation prevents discrimination by health insurers and employers, but does not apply to life insurance or long-term care insurance.

The passage of the Affordable Care Act in strengthened the GINA protections by prohibiting health insurance companies from denying coverage because of patient's "pre-existing conditions" and removing insurance issuers ability to adjust premium costs based on certain factors such as genetic diseases.

The tools for conducting whole genome analyses are generally found in high-income nations, necessitating partnerships between developed and developing countries in order to study the patients afflicted with certain diseases.

The relevant tools for sharing access to the collected data are not equally accessible across low-income nations and without an established standard for this type of research, concerns over fairness to local researchers remain unsettled.JASON Defense Advisory Panel Reports JASON is an independent scientific advisory group that provides consulting services to the U.S.

government on matters of defense science and technology. Policy Guidance on Executive Order To Prohibit Discrimination in Federal Employment Based on Genetic Information. Please note: Prior to November 21, , E.O. prohibited federal executive branch agencies from discriminating against applicants and employees on the basis of genetic information.

As of November 21, , however, Title II of GINA protects federal applicants and.

An analysis of discrimination laws in the human genome project

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The Human Genome Project pound that carries genetic information known as, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) DNA usually exists as two linear strands that twist together forming a spiral structure known as the double helix. 8 Each DNA strand is composed of four different units, called nude-.

The Human Genome Project is an international scientific collabora- tion to map the genes on the twenty-three human chromosomes that are made up of DNA. 4 This map of the genetic code of human . The four letters of the genetic code —A, C, G, and T—are projected onto Ryan Lingarmillar, a reveals what skin color obscures: We all have African ancestors.

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