An analysis of the three parts of the soul according to freud and plato

March 26, The three parts of the soul according to freud and plato Plato has exerted a greater influence over human thought than any other. How can I …. My whole religion is this: Focus and religion and philosophy.

An analysis of the three parts of the soul according to freud and plato

An unjust soul, by contrast, is an unhealthy soul. Given this fact, we are now in a position to at least suspect that it pays to be just. After all, we already admitted that health is something desirable in itself, so if justice is the health of the soul then it too should be desirable.

He puts off the definitive proofs until Book IX. Plato defines political justice as being inherently structural. A society consists of three main classes of people—the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians.

The just society consists in the right and fixed relationships between these three classes. Each of these groups must do the appropriate job, and only that job, and each must be in the right position of power and influence in relation to the other.

In this section, Plato sets out to show that the three classes of society have analogs in the soul of every individual. In other words, the soul, like the city, is a tripartite entity. The just individual can be defined in analogy with the just society; the three parts of his soul are fixed in the requisite relationships of power and influence.

In order to make this claim work, Plato must prove that there really are three parts of the soul. There are two distinct legs of the argument for the tripartite soul, and the relationship between them is obscure.

The first leg attempts to establish the presence of three distinct sets of desire in every individual.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

The second leg argues that these three sets of desire correspond to three distinct sources of desire, three distinct parts of the soul. The ultimate conclusion is that every individual has a tripartite soul. Plato has to classify the desires, because setting out to prove that there are three distinct parts of the soul without first establishing that there are these three types of desire, would not be as stylistically effective or compelling.

The first leg bridges the transition from the societal to the individual level by showing that group properties stem from individual properties. Why is it important for Plato to demonstrate that the three types of desire present in every individual correspond to three independent sources of desire?

Why would it not be sufficient to maintain that these three forces are manifested at different times by the same subject, but do not correspond to three distinct parts of the soul?

This distinction allows the three types of desire to be exerted simultaneously. Political justice is a structural property, consisting in the relationships of three necessary parts.

Plato (c. 427-347 BCE)

The relationships constituting political harmony are fixed and static in the same sense as the mathematical ratios that constitute musical harmony. In the individual, though desires come and go, the relationship between the different sets of desires remains fixed.

Plato begins his argument for the tripartite soul by setting up a criterion for individuation. The same thing cannot be affected in two opposite ways at the same time c.

Plato argues for the truth of this claim by bringing analogies from the behavior of bodies—a method which may seem illegitimate, given that he wants to use the principle to apply to aspects of the soul in particular, opposing desiresnot to physical objects.

In order to make the leap from observations about forces and desires to conclusions about parts of the soul, Plato relies throughout the argument on a suppressed metaphysical claim.

Where there is desire, there is the agent of desire: Using this premise and the criterion for individuation, he will arrive at three distinct parts of the soul, corresponding to the three aspects he has identified within the city. Plato first tries to establish the existence of a purely appetitive part of the soul using this method.

Thirst is a desire. There is a subject of this desire. Thirst is a desire for unqualified drink—that is, no particular kind of drink, just drink e.

Now comes a logical digression, the aim of which is to preclude the combination of appetitive and rational forces in the same subject.Plato's tripartite theory of soul is a theory of psyche proposed by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his treatise the Republic, and also with the chariot allegory in Republic, Plato asserted that the ψυχή (psyche) is composed of three parts; the λογιστικόν (logistykon, logical), the θυμοειδές (thymoeides, spirited) and the ἐπιθυμητικόν.

According to Plato, the soul can be further divided into three parts: Appetite, Reason, and Spirit (Stevenson, ). Each aspect of the soul has a different goal or motivation. Appetite is motivated by physical desires (e.g., hunger, sex). The Tripartite Theory of the Soul in the Republic In the Republic, Plato has Socrates introduces a new understanding of the soul.

The soul now has three parts: "reason" (τὸ λογιστικὸν) "spirit" (τὸ θυμοειδές), and "appetite (τὸ ἐπιθυμητικόν).". As the founder of the first university and considered the most powerful thinker in history Plato believed that the soul was made of three parts.

The Three Parts of the Soul in Plato's Republic and Phaedrus are mans Appetite (Black Horse on Left), Spirited (White Horse on Right), and Reason (Charioteer)/5(1).

Three Parts of the Soul Sometimes Plato's division of the psyche into its three main elements can be easily misunderstood. Some who read about it for the first time think it is the same as Freud's division of the psyche into the ego (das Ich), id (das Es), and superego (das Über-Ich), but it .

Plato argues that the soul comprises of three parts namely rational, appetitive, and the spirited. These parts also match up the three ranks of a just community. Personal justice involves maintaining the three parts in the proper balance, where reason rules while appetite obeys.

An analysis of the three parts of the soul according to freud and plato

According to Plato, the appetitive part of the soul is the one that is accountable for the desires in people.

Plato's three parts of the soul