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Background[ edit ] Inactivist students organized SLATEa campus political party meaning a "slate" of candidates running on the same level — a same "slate. According to existing rules at the time, fundraising for political parties was limited exclusively to the Democratic and Republican school clubs.
There was also a mandatory " loyalty oath " required of faculty, which had led to dismissals and ongoing controversy over academic freedom. Sol Sterna former radical who took part in the Free Speech Movement,  stated in a City Journal article that the group viewed the United States to be both racist and imperialistic and that the main intent after lifting Berkeley's loyalty oath was to build on the legacy of C Wright Mills and weaken the Cold War consensus by promoting the ideas of the Cuban Revolution.
He refused to show his identification to the campus police and was arrested. There was a spontaneous movement of students to surround the police car in which he was to be transported.
The police car remained there for 32 hours, all while Weinberg was inside it. At one point, there may have been 3, students around the car.
The car was used as a speaker's podium and a continuous public discussion was held which continued until the charges against Weinberg were dropped.
The demonstration was orderly; students studied, watched movies, and sang folk songs. Joan Baez was there to lead in the singing, as well as lend moral support. On the steps of Sproul Hall, Mario Savio  gave a famous speech: But we're a bunch of raw materials that don't mean to be — have any process upon us.
Don't mean to be made into any product! Don't mean — Don't mean to end up being bought by some clients of the University, be they the government, be they industry, be they organized labor, be they anyone!
There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious — makes you so sick at heart — that you can't take part. You can't even passively take part. And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop.
And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all. Shortly after 2 a. Close to students were arrested,  most of which were transported by bus to Santa Rita Jail in Dublinabout 25 miles away.
They were released on their own recognizance after a few hours behind bars. About a month later, the university brought charges against the students who organized the sit-inresulting in an even larger student protest that all but shut down the university.
Aftermath[ edit ] After much disturbance, the University officials slowly backed down. By January 3,the new acting chancellor, Martin Meyerson who had replaced the previous resigned Edward Strongestablished provisional rules for political activity on the Berkeley campus.
He designated the Sproul Hall steps an open discussion area during certain hours of the day and permitting tables.
This applied to the entire student political spectrum, not just the liberal elements that drove the Free Speech Movement. Students and others opposed to U. In the spring ofthe FSM was followed by the Vietnam Day Committee a major starting point for the anti-Vietnam war movement.
Achievements[ edit ] For the first time, disobedience tactics in the Civil Rights Movements was brought by the Free Speech Movement to a college campus in the s. Those approaches gave the students exceptional leverage to demand the university administrators, and building up the foundation for the future protests such as the against Vietnam War.
It was seen as the beginning of the famous student activism that existed on the campus in the s, and continues to a lesser degree today. There was a substantial voter backlash against the individuals involved in the Free Speech Movement. Ronald Reagan won an unexpected victory in the fall of and was elected Governor.
Reagan had gained political traction by campaigning on a platform to "clean up the mess in Berkeley". Furthermore, television news and documentary filmmaking had made it possible to photograph and broadcast moving images of protest activity.
Much of this media is available today as part of the permanent collection of the Bancroft Library at Berkeley, including iconic photographs of the protest activity by student Ron Enfield then chief photographer for the Berkeley campus newspaper, the Daily Cal.
The anti-Communist film Operation Abolition     depicted this scene and became an organizing tool for the protesters. Reunions[ edit ] The 20th anniversary reunion of the FSM was held during the first week of October,to considerable media attention. The week continued with a series of panels open to the public on the movement and its impact.Essays on the Great Depression [Ben S.
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