References and Further Reading 1. The Horned Man is a version of the "When did you stop beating your wife? This is not a simple question, and needs a carefully phrased reply, to avoid the inevitable come-back to "I have not.
John Gowdy writes, "Assumptions about human behaviour that members of market societies believe to be universal, that humans are naturally competitive and acquisitive, and that social stratification is natural, do not apply to many hunter-gatherer peoples.
The National Kidney Foundation produces clinical practice guidelines through the NKF Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI)™. This program has provided evidence-based guidelines for all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and related complications since Logical Paradoxes. A paradox is generally a puzzling conclusion we seem to be driven towards by our reasoning, but which is highly counterintuitive, nevertheless. Title: Some Principles of Stratification Created Date: Z.
Original affluent society Anthropologists identify egalitarian cultures as " kinship -oriented," because they appear to value social harmony more than wealth or status.
These cultures are contrasted with economically oriented cultures including states in which status and material wealth are prized, and stratification, competition, and conflict are common. Kinship-oriented cultures actively work to prevent social hierarchies from developing because they believe that such stratification could lead to conflict and instability.
A good example is given by Richard Borshay Lee in his account of the Khoisanwho practice "insulting the meat. The meat itself is then distributed evenly among the entire social group, rather than kept by the hunter.
The level of teasing is proportional to the size of the kill. Lee found this out when he purchased an entire cow as a gift for the group he was living with, and was teased for weeks afterward about it since obtaining that much meat could be interpreted as showing off. According to David H. Turnerin this arrangement, every person is expected to give everything of any resource they have to any other person who needs or lacks it at the time.
This has the benefit of largely eliminating social problems like theft and relative poverty. While many such variables cut across time and place, the relative weight placed on each variable and specific combinations of these variables will differ from place to place over time.
One task of research is to identify accurate mathematical models that explain how these many variables combine to produce stratification in a given society.
Grusky provides a good overview of the historical development of sociological theories of social stratification and a summary of contemporary theories and research in this field.
In general, sociologists recognize that there are no "pure" economic variables, as social factors are integral to economic value.
However, the variables posited to affect social stratification can be loosely divided into economic and other social factors. Economic inequality Strictly quantitative economic variables are more useful to describing social stratification than explaining how social stratification is constituted or maintained.
Income is the most common variable used to describe stratification and associated economic inequality in a society. Social status Social variables, both quantitative and qualitativetypically provide the most explanatory power in causal research regarding social stratification, either as independent variables or as intervening variables.
Three important social variables include genderraceand ethnicitywhich, at the least, have an intervening effect on social status and stratification in most places throughout the world.
Some of these variables may have both causal and intervening effects on social status and stratification. For example, absolute age may cause a low income if one is too young or too old to perform productive work. The social perception of age and its role in the workplace, which may lead to ageismtypically has an intervening effect on employment and income.
Social scientists are sometimes interested in quantifying the degree of economic stratification between different social categories, such as men and women, or workers with different levels of education.
An index of stratification has been recently proposed by Zhou for this purpose. Gender inequality Gender is one of the most pervasive and prevalent social characteristics which people use to make social distinctions between individuals. Gender distinctions are found in economic- kinship- and caste-based stratification systems.
Entire societies may be classified by social scientists according to the rights and privileges afforded to men or women, especially those associated with ownership and inheritance of property. Sex- and gender-based division of labor is historically found in the annals of most societies and such divisions increased with the advent of industrialization.
Other differences in employment between men and women lead to an overall gender-based pay-gap in many societies, where women as a category earn less than men due to the types of jobs which women are offered and take, as well as to differences in the number of hours worked by women.
Racism Racism consists of both prejudice and discrimination based in social perceptions of observable biological differences between peoples.This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over articles are included below).
This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over articles are included below).
Did You Know? If you look for it, you'll find stratification almost everywhere. On a tall rain-forest tree, there may be different air plants clinging to it, different insects crawling on it, and different mammals making their homes at different levels.
Logical Paradoxes. A paradox is generally a puzzling conclusion we seem to be driven towards by our reasoning, but which is highly counterintuitive, nevertheless. In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy. This course is designed to provide an overview on epidemiology and the Internet for medical and health related students around the world based on the concept of Global Health Network University and Hypertext Comic Books.