Spelling reforms

It was important at the time for the Republic of Turkey to be modernized in order to progress towards the level of contemporary civilizations and to be an active member of the culturally developed communities.

Spelling reforms

History[ edit ] Modern English spelling developed from about AD onwards, when—after three centuries of Norman French rule—English gradually became the official language of England again, although very different from beforehaving incorporated many words of French origin battle, beef, button, etc.

Early writers of this new English, such as Geoffrey Chaucergave it a fairly consistent spelling system, but this was soon diluted by Chancery clerks who re-spelled words based on French orthography[ citation needed ].

English spelling consistency was dealt a further blow when William Caxton brought the printing press to London in Having lived in mainland Europe for the preceding 30 years, his grasp of the English spelling system had become uncertain.

The Belgian assistants he brought to help him set up his business had an even poorer command of it. The many editions of these Bibles were all printed outside England by people who spoke little or no English.

Spelling reforms

They often changed spellings to match their Dutch orthography. Examples include the silent h in ghost to match Dutch gheest, which later became geestaghast, ghastly and gherkin.

Chronology of Reforms

The silent h in other words—such as ghospel, ghossip and ghizzard—was later removed. Some of these proposals were: James Howell in his Grammar of recommended minor changes to spelling, such as changing logique to logic, warre to war, sinne to sin, toune to town and tru to true.

From the 16th century AD onward, English writers who were scholars of Greek and Latin literature tried to link English words to their Graeco-Latin counterparts. They did this by adding silent letters to make the real or imagined links more obvious.

Thus det became debt to link it to Latin debitumdout became doubt to link it to Latin dubitaresissors became scissors and sithe became scythe as they were wrongly thought to come from Latin scindereiland became island as it was wrongly thought to come from Latin insulaake became ache as it was wrongly thought to come from Greek akhosand so forth.

Armor vs. armour – Grammarist

For example, Holofernes insists that everyone should pronounce the unhistorical B in words like doubt and debt. An bulletin, written wholly in reformed spelling click to enlarge.

The second period started in the 19th century and appears to coincide with the development of phonetics as a science. It included an essay on the oddities of modern orthography and his proposals for reform.

English-language spelling reform - Wikipedia

Many of the spellings he used, such as color and center, would become hallmarks of American English. InWebster began compiling an expanded dictionary. Although it drew some protest, the reformed spellings were gradually adopted throughout the United States. These were proposals for a new phonetic alphabet.

Although unsuccessful, they drew widespread interest. By the s, the philological societies of Great Britain and America chose to consider the matter.

Inthe American National Education Association adopted its own list of 12 words to be used in all writings: However, in Decemberthe U. Congress passed a resolution and the old spellings were reintroduced.

The handbook noted that every reformed spelling now in general use was originally the overt act of a lone writer, who was followed at first by a small minority. Thus, it encouraged people to "point the way" and "set the example" by using the reformed spellings whenever they could.

In Britain, the cause of spelling reform was promoted from by the Simplified Spelling Society and attracted a number of prominent supporters.

One of these was George Bernard Shaw author of Pygmalion and much of his considerable will was left to the cause. Among members of the society, the conditions of his will gave rise to major disagreements, which hindered the development of a single new system.

Over a two-month spell init introduced 80 respelled words, including tho, thru, thoro, agast, burocrat, frate, harth, herse, iland, rime, staf and telegraf. A March editorial reported that two-thirds of readers preferred the reformed spellings.

Another claimed that "prejudice and competition" was preventing dictionary makers from listing such spellings. Over the next 40 years, however, the newspaper gradually phased out the respelled words.noun.

the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.: social reform; spelling reform. an instance of this. the amendment of conduct. The reform of Russian orthography refers to official and unofficial changes made to the Russian alphabet over the course of the history of the Russian language, and in .

Kemal Atatürk: Kemal Ataturk, soldier, statesman, and reformer who was the founder and first president (–38) of the Republic of Turkey. The Western calendar and calendar reforms. The calendar now in general worldwide use had its origin in the desire for a solar calendar that kept in step with the seasons and possessed fixed rules of r-bridal.come it developed in Western Christendom, it had also to provide a method for dating movable religious feasts, the timing of which had been based on a lunar reckoning.

The Western calendar and calendar reforms

Kemal Atatürk: Kemal Ataturk, soldier, statesman, and reformer who was the founder and first president (–38) of the Republic of Turkey. The Western calendar and calendar reforms. The calendar now in general worldwide use had its origin in the desire for a solar calendar that kept in step with the seasons and possessed fixed rules of r-bridal.come it developed in Western Christendom, it had also to provide a method for dating movable religious feasts, the timing of which had been based on a lunar reckoning.

Kemal Ataturk | Biography, Reforms, Death, & Facts | r-bridal.com