Drinking Horn from the Hallstatt culture Brooches found in a grave of the Hallstatt culture The Hallstatt era is named after the city Hallstatt in Austriawhere the first artifacts were found. It lasted from about BC to about BC.
Chinese calligraphy Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing calligraphyor, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form. This type of expression has been widely practiced in China and has been generally highly esteemed in the Chinese cultural sphere including, historically, for example, JapanKoreaTaiwanand Vietnam.
There are some general standardizations of the various styles of calligraphy in this tradition. Chinese calligraphy and ink and wash painting are closely related: Distinguishing features of Chinese painting and calligraphy include an emphasis on motion charged with dynamic life.
According to Stanley-Baker, "Calligraphy is sheer life experienced through energy in motion that is registered as traces on silk or paper, with time and rhythm in shifting space its main ingredients.
Chinese literature The Zhou dynasty is often regarded as the touchstone of Chinese cultural development. Concepts covered within the Chinese classic texts present a wide range of subjects including poetryastrologyastronomycalendarconstellations and many others.
Many Chinese concepts such as Yin and YangQiFour Pillars of Destiny in relation to heaven and earth were theorized in the pre-imperial periods. By the end of the Qing dynasty, Chinese culture would embark on a new era with written vernacular Chinese for the common citizens.
Hu Shih and Lu Xun would be pioneers in modern literature. After the founding of the People's Republic of Chinathe study of Chinese modern literature has gradually been increased over time.
Modern-era literature has formed an aspect in the process of forming modern interpretations of nationhood and creation of a sense of national spirit.
Tang poetry Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty June 18, — June 4,including the — reign of Wu Zetian or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry.
The Quantangshi includes over 48, poems written by over 2, authors. During the Tang dynasty, poetry continued to be an important part of social life at all levels of society. Scholars were required to master poetry for the civil service exams, but the art was theoretically available to everyone.
Two of the most famous poets of the period were Li Bai and Du Fu. Tang poetry has had an ongoing influence on world literature and modern and quasi-modern poetry. The Quantangshi "Complete Tang Poems" anthology compiled in the early eighteenth century includes over 48, poems written by over 2, authors.
Ci use a set of poetic meters derived from a base set of certain patterns, in fixed-rhythm, fixed-tone, and variable line-length formal types, or model examples: Originally they were written to be sung to a tune of that title, with set rhythm, rhymeand tempo.
There were also enormous works of historiography and large encyclopedias, such as Sima Guang 's Zizhi Tongjian of or the Four Great Books of Song fully compiled and edited by the 11th century. Notable ConfucianistsTaoists and scholars of all classes have made significant contributions to and from documenting history to authoring saintly concepts that seem hundred of years ahead of time.
Although the oldest surviving textual examples of surviving ci are from 8th century CE Dunhuang manuscripts beginning in the poetry of the Liang Dynastythe ci followed the tradition of the Shi Jing and the yuefu: The form was further developed in the Tang Dynasty.
Although the contributions of Li Bo also known as Li Po, — are fraught with historical doubt, certainly the Tang poet Wen Tingyun — was a great master of the ci, writing it in its distinct and mature form.
However, the ci form of Classical Chinese poetry is especially associated with the poetry of the Song Dynastyduring which it was indeed a popular poetic form. A revival of the ci poetry form occurred during the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty which was characterized by an exploration of the emotions connected with romantic love together with its valorization, often in a context of a brief poetic story narrative within a ci poem or a linked group of ci poems in an application of the chuanqi form of short story tales to poetry.
Qu poetry The Qu form of poetry is a type of Classical Chinese poetry formconsisting of words written in one of a number of certain, set tone patternsbased upon the tunes of various songs.
Thus Qu poems are lyrics with lines of varying longer and shorter lengths, set according to the certain and specific, fixed patterns of rhyme and tone of conventional musical pieces upon which they are based and after which these matched variations in lyrics or individual Qu poems generally take their name.
In Chinese literaturethe Qu Chinese: The San in Sanqu refers to the detached status of the Qu lyrics of this verse form: Four Great Classical Novels The Four Great Classical  or Classic Novels of Chinese literature  [a] are the four novels commonly regarded by Chinese literary criticism to be the greatest and most influential of pre-modern Chinese fiction.
Dating from the Ming and Qing dynasties, they are well-known to most Chinese either directly or through their many adaptations to Chinese opera and other popular culture media. They are among the world's longest and oldest novels  and are considered to be the pinnacle of China's achievement in classic novels, influencing the creation of many stories, plays, movies, games, and other forms of entertainment throughout countries in East Asiaincluding JapanKoreaand Vietnam.
The novel as an extended prose narrative which realistically creates a believable world of its own evolved in China and in Europe from the 14th to 18th centuries, though a little earlier in China.
Chinese audiences were more interested in history and were more historically minded. They appreciated relative optimism, moral humanism, and relative emphasis on collective behavior and the welfare of the society.
In both China and Western Europe, the novel gradually became more autobiographical and serious in exploration of social, moral, and philosophical problems.China - The Zhou feudal system: The feudal states were not contiguous but rather were scattered at strategic locations surrounded by potentially dangerous and hostile lands.
The fortified city of the feudal lord was often the only area that he controlled directly; the state and the city were therefore identical, both being guo, a combination of city wall and weapons.
The history of the world is about the study of the cultural achievements of the entire human race. This includes the time from prehistory to the end of the 20th century and excludes natural history before the development of human beings.
The Zhou Dynasty: - B.C. Map of China under rule of the Zhou Dynasty. Location: The Zhou Dynasty was originally located to the west of the Shang dynasty but after the defeat of the Shang, the borders were extended as far south as the Chang Jiang River and east to the Yellow Sea.
Learn what "big history" is and how scholars apply this approach to the story of humanity. Gain new understanding of the complete sweep of human history, across all civilizations and around the world.
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s. The Shang and Zhou dynasties contributed to the growth of Chinese civilizations, laid foundations for other civilizations, and had some great achievements.
The Shang dynasty replaced the Xia dynasty in about to B.C. The king ruled over a system of territories run by aristocratic w.