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Artistic research[ edit ] The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.
It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Documentary research Steps in conducting research[ edit ] Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.
The major steps in conducting research are: Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.
The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated.
At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century. This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure: Exploratory researchwhich helps to identify and define a problem or question.
Constructive researchwhich tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. Empirical researchwhich tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.
There are two major types of empirical research design: Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc that is analyzed, and searching for themes.
This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.
Quantitative research This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods.
The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey or descriptive. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism. The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.
If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment.
If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires.
Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.
For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source.
This, however, does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot be found within the pool of existing and established knowledge.
Non-empirical research is not an absolute alternative to empirical research because they may be used together to strengthen a research approach.
Neither one is less effective than the other since they have their particular purpose in science.An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
It . Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. Filed by the ACRL Board on February 2, Adopted by the ACRL Board, January 11, This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License..
PDF Version. Print copies may be purchased from the Association of College and Research Libraries for $ for a package of 10, including standard postage. What this handout is about.
This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative.
It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".